The Driver Suit Blog-Paint Scheme Grades-February 28, 2015

Brad Keselowski #2 Detroit Genuine Parts Ford Fusion-Black and blue could be a great combo, but the blue here is much too light. If the blue were darker, it would earn an A+ grade. This scheme earns a C- grade.

Sam Hornish Jr. #9 Camping World/Medallion Bank Ford Fusion– Green, yellow, and blue is horrible, and the design is even worse. F

Ricky Stenhouse Jr. #17 Fifth-Third Bank Ford Fusion-Much smoother look, good color scheme, A+

Paul Menard #27 Menard’s/Duracel Chevy SS-Great color scheme, great simple design, A+

Cole Whitt #35 Rinnai Filters Ford Fusion-Same scheme as last year, same A+ grade.

Kyle Larson #42 Energizer Eco Advanced Chevy SS-Same scheme as last year, same D grade

Brett Moffitt #55 Aaron’s 60th Anniversary Toyota Camry– They took the A+ scheme from this year, reversed the color scheme, and added an additional logo on the hood. It works well and will keep the A+ grade.


The Driver Suit Blog-Racing Innovators and Their Eureka Moments Part 1, Bill Simpson

KODAK Digital Video CameraBy David G. Firestone

Everyone has a moment that shapes the rest of our lives for the better. For me, it was joining the TV crew in my sophomore year of high school. For some people, it might seem like the worst point in their lives. Sometimes you have to hit bottom to rise to the top. It might be horrible in the short term, but great in the long run.

Bill Simpson is one of those people. His moment came in 1958. He was drag racing at age 18, and broke both his arms in a crash. When you have both arms in a crash, it gives you time to think. Simpson began to think about a design for a parachute. He came up with a cross design for a parachute, and designed the cross parachute. He tested it on a public road, and was arrested for the stunt. The chute proved effective, and when “Big Daddy” Don Garlitts called, and that’s how Simpson Performance Products was founded.

This is the design that led to the first Nomex racing suit being invented in 1964.  After this design proved effective, Simpson was brought on to NASA as a parachute consultant.  It was there he met Pete Conrad, Apollo astronaut, third man to walk on the moon, and Skylab visitor.  Conrad was also an avid race car driver, and knew of Simpson’s devotion to racing safety, so he introduced Simpson to Nomex, a fire retardent Kevlar material.  Simpson began developing racing suits with the material, and it quickly became the standard material for driver suits, which it still is, 41 years later.

The X design of drag chute is still in use today. It is so effective, that while there were some minor design changes, including size changes, the basic design hasn’t changed. This is an example used by TJ Zizzo from 2010 to 2013. KODAK Digital Video Camera KODAK Digital Video CameraZizzo ran two of these chutes on the back of his dragster, and this example is 12 feet by 12 feet. It shows a decent amount of wear, with stains and holes.zizzochute5There is a hole in the center that allows the chute to be deployed, and there is an inventory tag placed here as well. zizzochute3 zizzochute4 On the cables connecting the chute to the car, there is some extra protection. This is necessary because on top fuel dragsters, the engine is very close to the parachute attachment, and in the event of a fire, the chute will still be able to function. TJ’s example shows some wear on the silver layer. KODAK Digital Video Camera KODAK Digital Video Camera KODAK Digital Video CameraHere is video of the chute in use.

One thing that a lot of non drag racing fans don’t realize is that many drivers pack their own chutes. Race car drivers are control freaks, and so this makes sense. The logic a few drivers use is that if I mess it up, I don’t have anyone to blame for it except myself. Here is a video of Jack Beckman packing his chute,

and pro stock driver Rickie Jones explaining how he packs his own chute.

Drag racing chutes are amazing pieces of equipment, and I’m always amazed how it takes only a few people to change the sport as a whole. Next Week, I will continue this discussion with something even more awe inspiring.

The Driver Suit Blog-Paint Scheme Tracker-February 25, 2015

By David G. Firestone

2015 Toyota CamryThe first Gen 6 redesign comes to the Camry for 2015. The front is sleeker, with a more aggressive nose, and grill area, the tail has been redesigned as well.

Jamie McMurray #1 Cessna/Beechcraft Chevy SSNo Change

Jamie McMurray #1 McDonald’s Chevy SSSame basic scheme, but with a new door design.

Jamie McMurray #1 Cessna/McDonald’s Chevy SS-Special dual scheme for the Daytona 500, black Cessna on the front, fade to red McDonald’s on the back.

Jamie McMurray #1 Sherwin Williams Chevy SS-New sponsor for 2015, Red, white and blue with a red line down the center, with the top fades blue to white on top, and white to blue on the bottom.

Brad Keselowski #2 Miller Lite Ford FusionSame basic design as 2014, but with no gold stripe, vintage Miller Crest, or hop designs on the side.

Brad Keselowski #2 Alliance Truck Parts Ford FusionNew redesign, similar in design to Joey Logano’s Shell/Pennzoil Ford, black replaces yellow as the primary color.

Brad Keselowski #2 Wurth Ford FusionRedesign from last season, follows the Shell/Pennzoil template.

Austin Dillon #3 Cheerios Chevy SSNo change

Austin Dillon #3 Dow Chevy SSNo change

Austin Dillon #3 Bass Pro Shops Chevy SSNo Change

Austin Dillon #3 American Ethanol Chevy SSNo Change

Kevin Harvick #4 Budweiser Chevy SSNo change

Kevin Harvick #4 Jimmie Johns Chevy SSNo change

Kevin Harvick #4 Outback SteakhouseNo Change

Kevin Harvick #4 Ditech Chevy SS-New sponsor for 2015, blue, and white is the primary color scheme

Kasey Kahne #5 Great Clips Chevy SSNo Change

Kasey Kahne #5 Time Warner Cable Chevy SSNo Change

Kasey Kahne #5 Farmers Insurance Chevy SSComplete redesign from last year, black, and dark blue replaces light blue and silver, and the design has been completely revamped.

Kasey Kahne #5 Liftmaster Chevy SS-New sponsor for 2015, red and white redesign of the Time Warner scheme.

Kasey Kahne #5 Pepsi Chevy SSNo change

Trevor Bayne #6 Advocare Ford Fusion-New team, new sponsor, red, white and blue is the color scheme.

Alex Bowman #7 Nikko/Toy State Chevy SS-New sponsor for 2015, Red borders a blue design on the sides and hood.

Sam Hornish Jr. #9 Twisted Tea Ford FusionNo Change

Danica Patrick #10 Aspen Dental Chevy SSSame basic design as last year, but the blue ovals on the white are more pronounced.

Danica Patrick #10 GoDaddy Chevy SSNew redesign with more black and less orange.

Danica Patrick #10 GoDaddy/TaxAct Chevy SS-New sponsor combo for the Sprint Unlimited, front of the car retains traditional GoDaddy design, whereas back quarter panel is TaxAct

Danica Patrick #10 TaxAct Chevy SS-One race sponsor, will run at Martinsville in March, red, white and black scheme, with diagonal design up the doors.

Denny Hamlin #11 FedEx Express Toyota CamryNew redesign with a much simpler front and more design on the sides.

Denny Hamln #11 FedEx Office Toyota CamrySame redesign as FedEx Express

Denny Hamlin #11 FedEx Freight Toyota CamrySame redesign as FedEx Express

Denny Hamlin #11 FedEx Ground Toyota CamrySame redesign as FedEx Express

Denny Hamlin #11 SportClips Toyota CamryNew redesign with a new door design

Casey Mears #13 Geico Chevy SSNo Change.

Tony Stewart #14 Bass Pro Shops/Mobil 1 Chevy SSSame color scheme as last year, but with a new design on the side.

Tony Stewart #14 Mobil 1/Bass Pro Shops Chevy SSSame color scheme as last year, but with a new design on the side.

Tony Stewart #14 Code 3 Associates/Mobil1 Chevy SSNo Change

Clint Bowyer #15 5 Hour Energy Toyota CamryNo Change

Clint Bowyer #15 Peak Toyota CamryNo Change

Greg Biffle #16 Cheez Its Ford Fusion-New sponsor for 2015, red with a cheese colored stripe and crackers on the side.

Greg Biffle #16 Clean Harbors Ford Fusion-New sponsor for 2015, red white and black design

Greg Biffle #16 Ortho Fire Ant Killer Ford FusionNo change

Greg Biffle #16 Ortho Home Defense Ford Fusion-New sponsor, white design with a red and yellow stripe on the bottom, with a net design on the side.

Greg Biffle #16 Ortho Bug-B-Gon Ford Fusion-New sponsor, new design, red, black, and white is the primary color scheme.

Ricky Stenhouse Jr. #17 Fastenal Ford Fusion-New primary sponsor, blue, and white is the color scheme.

Kyle Busch #18 Interstate Batteries Toyota CamryNo Change

Kyle Busch #18 M&M’s Crispy Toyota Camry-New design for 2015, with a green background and more emphasis on M&M’s Crispy, as well as a new hood logo.

Carl Edwards #19 Stanley Toyota Camry-New team and new sponsor, yellow, black, and white is the color scheme.

Carl Edwards #19 Aaris Toyota Camry-New team and new sponsor, reddish orange with the Aaris logo used as part of the side stripe.

Carl Edwards #19 SportClips Toyota Camry-New sponsor, same design as Denny Hamlin.

Carl Edwards #19 Subway Toyota CamryNew sponsor for Joe Gibbs, much simpler design.

Matt Kenseth #20 DeWalt Toyota Camry-New sponsor, black, green, yellow, and white is the color scheme.

Matt Kenseth #20 Dollar General Toyota CamryMuch simpler than the 2014 scheme, with fewer side designs.

Ryan Blaney #21 Motorcraft/Quicklane Ford FusionNo Change

Joey Logano #22 Shell/Pennzoil Ford FusionNo change

Joey Logano #22 AAA Ford FusionThe AAA logo has been straightened up in 2015.

Joey Logano #22 Pennzoil Platnum Ford FusionNo Change

J.J. Yeley #23 Dr. Pepper/Maxim Fantasy Sports Toyota Camry-New sponsor for the Daytona 500.  Black on top, white on the bottom, red stripe in between,  Dr Pepper style logo on the door number.

Jeff Gordon #24 3M Chevy SS-New design for 2015, silver, with red accents and numbers, with a white hood design that extends over the roof and deck-lid.

Jeff Gordon #24 Axalta Chevy SSNo Change

Jeff Gordon #24 Drive to End Hunger Chevy SSMuch simpler redesign, with new hood logo and same color scheme

Jeff Gordon #24 Panasonic Toughbook Chevy SSNo Change

Chase Elliott #25 NAPA Chevy SS-New sponsor and car number for 2015, blue is the primary sponsor, with a yellow design on the side.

Jeb Burton #26 Live Deals Ford Fusion-New sponsor for the Daytona 500, will have similar design as JJ Yeley, but with orange, black, and white.

Paul Menard #27 Pittsburgh Paints/Menard’s Chevy SSNo change

Paul Menard #27 Menard’s/Serta Chevy SSSame basic scheme as 2014, but with more blue on the sides than last year.

Paul Menard #27 Menard’s/Peak Chevy SSSome slight changes to the stripes, and roof

Justin Marks #29 American Born Moonshine Toyota Camry-New sponsor for the Daytona 500, has a wood finished look, with white lettering.

Ron Horniday #30 Smokey Mountain Herbal Snuff Chevy SS-New team and sponsor for 2015. Two-tone green design with white lettering and yellow accents.

Ryan Newman #31 Cat Chevy SSSame color scheme, but the car as a whole has been redesigned

Ryan Newman #31 Quicken Loans Chevy SSNo change

Ryan Newman #31 Granger Chevy SS-New sponsor for 2015, green, red and white, with some designs on the side.

Go FAS Racing #32 Keen Parts Ford FusionSimpler redesign and a much simpler color scheme.

Go FAS Racing #32 C&J Energy Services Ford FusionSame color scheme, but with a different and much more complex side design

Ty Dillon #33 Yuengling Brewery Chevy SS-New sponsor, red, white, and blue is the primary color scheme.

Ty Dillon #33 Cheerios Chevy SS-New sponsor for the Daytona 500, based on Austin Dillon’s Cheerios scheme, but with a Kroger’s logo on the hood.

David Ragan #34 KFC Ford FusionRedesign for 2015, all white front, KFC style stripes on the back.

David Ragan #34 CSX Ford FusionSame basic scheme, though the word bubble on the hood has been replaced with a CSX logo.

Cole Whitt #35 Speed Stick Gear Ford FusionNo Change

David Gilliland #38 Love’s Travel Stops Ford FusionNo change

Landon Cassill #40 Snap 24-7 Fitness Chevy SSSlight redesign from last year, with the black quarter panel replaced with red.

Landon Cassill #40 Cars For Sale Chevy SSNo Change

Stewart-Haas Racing #41Haas CNC Chevy SSSame color scheme, but the car has been completely redesigned.

Stewart-Haas Racing #41 Slate Water Heaters Chevy SSNo change

Kyle Larson #42 Target Chevy SSSame basic design as 2014, but with some sponsor changes on the quarter panel.

Kyle Larson #42 White Target Chevy SSSame basic design as 2014, but with some sponsor changes on the quarter panel.

Aric Almoriola #43 Eckrich Ford FusionSame basic design, but with a Nathans logo on the rear.

Aric Almirola #43 Smithfield Ford FusionNo change

Aric Almirola #43 Fresh From Florida Ford FusionNo Change.

Aric Almirola #43 STP Ford FusionNo Change.

Reed Sorenson #44 Golden Corral Chevy SS-New sponsor for 2015, same design as 2015 #36.

Michael Annett #46 Pilot/Flying J Chevy SS-New car number and design. White is the primary color, with red and yellow accents on the sides and front.

AJ Allmendinger #47 Better Than Bullion Chevy SS-New Sponsor for 2015, all black with a gold stripe running down the side.

AJ Allmendinger #47 Bush’s Best Chevy SSSame basic scheme, some logos have changed on the side.

AJ Allmendinger #47 Clorox Chevy SSSame basic scheme, some logos have changed on the side.

AJ Allmendinger #47 House Autry Chevy SS-New primary sponsor for 2015,  Red sides, with blue roof and posts.

AJ  Allmendinger #47 Bush’s Chilli Beans Chevy SS-New sponsor, yellow to orange to yellow fade across whole car.

AJ Allmendinger #47 Hungry Jack Chevy SSSame basic scheme, some logos have changed on the side.

AJ Allmendinger #47 Kingsford Chevy SSSame basic scheme, some logos have changed on the side.

AJ Allmendinger #47 Scott Chevy SSSame basic scheme, some logos have changed on the side.

AJ Allmendinger #47 Bush’s Grilling Beans Chevy SSSame basic scheme, some logos have changed on the side.

AJ Allmendinger #47 Kroger Chevy SSNo change

Jimmie Johnson #48 Lowe’s Chevy SSNew design, bears a resemblance to the old Kobalt tools scheme from 2009.

Jimmie Johnson #48 Kobalt Chevy SSNew design, redesigned version of the current Lowe’s scheme.

Justin Allgaier #51 Brandt Chevy SSSame primary design, but the door number has reversed colors.

Brian Vickers #55 Aaron’s Toyota CamrySame basic design as last year, the nose has been changed, the main blue is slightly darker, and the gold has been replaced with light blue

Brett Moffitt #55 Aaron’s 60th Anniversary Toyota Camry-New scheme for 2015, colors are reversed, new logo on the hood.

Brian Scott #62 Shore Lodge Chevy SS-New sponsor for the Daytona 500, Black with white lettering and silver designs.

Mike Wallace #66 Crazy Vapors/X8 Energy Gum Toyota Camry-New sponsor for 2015, Hood has Crazy Vapors green stripe design, side has X8 abstract design.

Martin Truex Jr. #78 Furniture Row Racing Chevy SSNo Change

Johnny Sauter #83 Dustless Blasting Toyota Camry-New sponsor for 2015, green stripes up the hood and roof, white design with Dr Pepper style door numbers.

Dale Earnhardt Jr. #88 Nationwide Chevy SSNo Change

Dale Earnhardt Jr. #88 Diet Mountain Dew Chevy SSNo major changes,except a Nationwide logo replaces the National Guard logo.

Dale Earnhardt Jr. #88 Kelly Blue Book Chevy SSSame basic design but blue has replaced white as the primary color.

Michael McDowell #95 Thrivent Financial Ford FusionRedesign of last year’s scheme, another example of logo as a stripe pattern.

Michael McDowell #95 K-Love Ford FusionTemplate has been redesigned, and the city outline on the rear quarterpanel has been removed.

Josh Wise #98 Phoenix Construction Ford Fusion-New sponsor for 2015, all white with red lettering, and red and black numbers

Vintage Item Spotlight-Union College Football Notes From 1895

unionnotesUnion College in Schenectady, New York has a football tradition that extends back to 1886. The Union College Dutchman have been playing football for 126 seasons. They did not play in 1906 due to the death of Harold Moore. It was this moment, in a game against New York University in late 1905 that Moore died, due to a kick in the head. That kick created a cerebral hemorrhage, which killed him. As fate would have it, Teddy Roosevelt was already actively campaigning for changes in rules in football due to his son playing at Harvard. After Moore’s death, Roosevelt helped create the NCAA, which implemented many rule changes, and has saved countless lives over the years.

10 years before the series of events which would change the game of football forever, the Union College Dutchmen were coached by E.M. Church, and their captain was J.G. Beckwith. They played a total of 9 games, and were 4-4-1. In preparation for the season, Beckwith and Church laid out the plays, and created a series of hand gestures that would be used to communicate the play from the coach to the player.unionnotes This document is fascinating for many reasons. I love stuff like this, that makes sense to the people who create it, but is designed to be nonsensical to anyone else. This is also an example of how simple sports really were back then.First off, I love really old handwriting. My hand writing is awful, and the handwriting from the late 19th century looks astounding. For a document that is as old as it is, it is in great shape. It’s also interesting because if you look at it carefully, it is designed to make sense only to the people who are looking at it. To me, the words are written in such a way that if someone who isn’t a football player is reading it, they won’t understand.

The Driver Suit Blog-My Thoughts On The Black Cloud Hanging Over Daytona This Week.

By David G. Firestone

The Daytona 500 is behind us, the NASCAR season is underway. The race was great, Joey Logano finally lived up to the lofty expectations set on him when he was a rookie. Jeff Gordon has raced in his last Daytona 500 in his regular career, though I won’t rule out that he might come back for the 500 at some point. All in all it should have been a great weekend for NASCAR, but while the sun shone over Daytona, there was a dark cloud hanging over NASCAR this weekend.

The dark cloud started in November, when allegations against Kurt Busch came to light. Patricia Driscol, Kurt’s ex girlfriend went to the police and alleged that Kurt had assaulted her, during the fall race at Dover in September. Between then and Thursday, a series of court hearing took place. On Monday, Busch was ordered to stay away from Driscoll, as the court had deemed that “an act of domestic abuse had taken place.” As a direct result of that ruling, on Friday, he was indefinitely suspended from NASCAR. Busch appealed TWICE on Saturday, and lost both appeals, and is now indefinitely suspended from NASCAR.

I stated when the story first broke in November, that I would wait until the facts are fully known before I would take a side. Now that those facts have come to light, I will state the following: Under NO circumstances is domestic abuse ever acceptable! Kurt’s actions are totally unacceptable, and he should be suspended for at least the 2015 season, minimum. I don’t feel bad at all for Kurt, he will lose a lot of money, his career is probably over, and he will face criminal charges, and he deserves it. Anyone who hits a spouse, or children does not deserve sympathy. I don’t feel bad for Busch, Ray Rice, or Chris Brown, because men should NEVER hit women!

NASCAR took some heat in waiting as long as they did, but they said that they would wait for the facts to come out before they made a decision. I think that it was a wise move. They did the same thing with Tony Stewart last year as well. People in this day in age want immediate reactions, immediate suspensions, and immediate discipline. I get that, but doing it fast should never take precedence over doing it right.

With this story in mind, I sat down to watch the Alert Today Florida 300 on Saturday. I was treated to a great race…until lap 113, when there was “The Big One” and Kyle Busch was sent into a concrete wall near turn 2, nearly head on at an estimated 90 MPH, and had to be helped from his car. He was taken to Halifax Medical Center, and was diagnosed with a severe compound fracture in his right leg, as well as a broken foot.

The wall he hit was a simple concrete wall, no tires, or SAFR barrier. How in the world can there be any track, much less Daytona International Speedway, that has concrete walls with no energy absorbing materials? I get the $500 a foot price tag is a bit hefty, but when something like this happens, drivers and fans demand answers, and action. As such, there will be improvements starting today at Daytona, but how many more times does this have to happen, seriously? How many top shelf drivers will be sidelined with injuries because of cost cutting? WHEN WILL THIS STOP? I hate having to call out racing sanctioning bodies for seemingly stupid safety issues, I really do, but why does this keep happening? I wanted to write a story about how great Daytona was, and how much fun I had, but I can’t! I’ll finish this article now, as I’m too angry to finish.

The Driver Suit Blog-Paint Scheme and Helmet Grades-February 21, 2015

By David G. Firestone

Jamie McMurray #1 Cessna/McDonald’s Chevy SS-Love the fade, the look is really smooth, the colors work well, A+

Paul Menard #27 Menard’s/Peak Chevy SS– Same scheme as last year, same F grade.

Landon Cassill #40 Cars For Sale Chevy SS– Same Scheme as last year, same C- grade

Kyle Larson #42 White Target Chevy SS-Same scheme as last year, same B- grade.

Brian Scott #62 Shore Lodge Chevy SS-Good color scheme, much too over designed, it looks terrible, B-

Josh Wise #98 Phoenix Construction Ford Fusion-Simple, smooth design, with a great color scheme, A+

I get tired of just doing paint schemes, and I wanted to do something different, but I had no idea what to do. Then I came across this, and it gave me an idea. I’m gonna grade these helmets in order. The grading will be different from car schemes, since racing helmets have different design standards to me than cars.

Jeff Gordon-The red looks really good, the carbon fiber design looks really good, I don’t like the white, so I’ll give it a B+

Dale Earnhardt Jr.-The matte black with silver designs looks really good, but the Nationwide logo looks so out of place. It looks awkward, and it takes an A scheme to a B-

Trevor Bayne-The blue design would look good by itself, as would the red and white design, but the two schemes together look forced and awful. D-

Aric Almirola-Great design, great color scheme, A+

Brad Keselowski-The black carbon fiber design with logos on it looks really good. A+

Kyle Busch-The racing helmet design would work without the M&M’s logos all over the place, and vice versa, but the color scheme is good, so I’ll give it a C+

Matt Kenseth-Great design, great color scheme, A+

Kyle Larson-Great design, great color scheme, and I do like the subtle red Target logo. A+

Kevin Harvick-The red and gold Anheuser Busch design looks good, and the logos on the white banner across the front works very well too. A+

Kasey Kahne-Like the color scheme, and the design is decent, A

Jimmie Johnson-I like the overall design, the color scheme is good, though I do think that the silver should be darker. Still it’s an A design.

Josh Wise-I liked the whole Dogecoin thing when it started at Talladega last year, but it’s getting to the point where it’s just overdone. The color scheme is good, the adjectives on the back are interesting, but it’s just too silly to earn anything above a C-

Greg Biffle-Black with silver designs has been done, but the bugs that look like they are crawling over the helmet make it work, and it works quite well. I’ll give it an A

Austin Dillon-Good color scheme, I like the bird design on the side, a bit over done, but still an A scheme.

Danica Patrick-One of the only helmets where the color scheme does not match the sponsor. Danica has worn this design for quite a while, and it looks great! A+

Denny Hamlin-The helmet matches the car, and earns a matching A+ grade.

Tony Stewart-One of the most underrated designs in gasoline history, the Mobil Pegasus takes the lead in this design. I like the numbers and all white design as well, A+

Jamie McMurray-I gave Kyle Larson credit for the subtle Target logos, but this design is overdone. The subtle Golden Arches take an A design to a C- design, which not even a great color scheme can help.

Clint Bowyer-Overall design is good, has a good color scheme, and the Zombie Elvis is a quirky touch that I like. A+

Joey Logano-Good color scheme, and I love the vintage hot rod on the side, and will give it an A+

Paul Menard-Digital camo doesn’t look good on the side of a race car, and doesn’t look good on the side of a helmet either. I’ll give it a D+ for a good color scheme, and a cool spider.

Ryan Newman-My big complaint about Ryan Newman’s Cat scheme is too much white. Black and yellow is a great color scheme, but too much white takes it from an A to a B-.

Brian Vickers-Metallic gold is under used on race cars, and I’m shocked that it is, this helmet looks really good. It’s a A grade.

Martin Truex Jr.-Digital camo doesn’t look good on the side of a race car, and doesn’t look good on the side of a helmet either. I’ll give it a D+ for a good color scheme.

Ricky Stenhouse Jr.-The subtle nut logos work well, the color scheme is good, can’t say anything bad, A+