The Driver Suit Blog-Paint Scheme Grades-February 16, 2019

By David G. Firestone

Brad Keselowski #2 Discount Tire Ford Mustang-Same scheme as last year, same A grade.

Kevin Harvick #4 Busch Beer Car 2 Can Ford Mustang-The black carbon fiber looks great, and the car isn’t over designed. It’s a great look, and this scheme earns an A.

Ryan Newman #6 Wyndham Rewards Ford Mustang-Removing the clouds would work if they hadn’t added the stripes. This could have been so much better, but the over designed stripes take it from an A to a B+.

Ryan Newman #6 Performance Plus Motor Oil Ford Mustang-Same scheme as last year, same B- grade.

Ryan Newman #6 Acorns Ford Mustang-I could stand this scheme if the door numbers were white. The green and white works very well here. The pinkish-blue door and roof numbers clash with the rest of the scheme. It’s such a bad look, that if the door numbers were plain white, I would give this an A. The end result is this scheme gets a C-

Chase Elliott #9 Mountain Dew/Team Rubicon Chevy Camaro-Camo doesn’t add to many schemes, but this scheme is so much worse. Metallic gold and camo is not a good look. The rest of the scheme is good, but the camo takes an A scheme down to a B+.

Aric Almirola #10 Smithfield Prime Fresh Ford Mustang-Another example of two different design elements which would be amazing by themselves, but look forced and awkward together. The white would work, the green would work, they don’t work well together. Still, it isn’t horrible, so I’ll give it a B+.

Clint Bowyer #14 Mobil 1 Ford Fusion-The black with subtle red flames is an amazingly bold look, that isn’t over designed. It looks great and earns an A.

Ricky Stenhouse Jr. #17 Little Hug Fruit Barrels Ford Mustang-Same scheme as last year, same F grade.

Kyle Busch #18 Skittles Patriotic Toyota Camry-Same scheme as last year, same A grade.

Erik Jones #20 SportClips Toyota Camry-The smartphone motif is decent, because it covers the stripes. It’s still not a great scheme, but it is an improvement, so I’ll give it a C.

Joey Logano #22 Shell/Pennzoil Ford Mustang-Same scheme as last year, same D grade.

Corey LaJoie #32 Old Spice Ford Mustang-When it comes to paint schemes, I am very rarely at a total loss for words, but when I first saw this, I was shocked. Even with some of the worst schemes, I get what they were going for. Here, I have no idea what’s going on. Why would LaJoie put his own face on the front of his car? Why? I can only hope his face gets wrecked in the race. F

Michael McDowell #34 Love’s Truck Stops Ford Mustang-Same scheme as last year, same A grade.

Matt Tifft #36 Speedco Ford Mustang-Same scheme as last year, same A grade.

David Ragan #38 Select Blinds Ford Mustang-Decent color scheme, could be darkened a bit. Decent design scheme, could be toned down a bit. Together, they are a decent look combined, so I’ll give it a B.

Darrell Wallace Jr. #43 Aftershokz Chevy Camaro-Its a bold look, the color scheme is great, and the look isn’t over designed, so I’l give it an A.

BJ McCleod #51 Jacob Companies Chevy Camaro-Great color scheme, but the design scheme is over designed, but not too over designed. All things considered, I’ll give it a B.

Cody Ware #52 Winn-Dixie Chevy Camaro-Same scheme as last year, same A grade.

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The Driver Suit Blog-The Goals of All Drivers in Racing

By David G. Firestone

For this week, we will focus on collecting trophies. Drivers race for two things, the love of the sport, and to win. Climbing out of the car in victory lane feels good, and being presented a trophy for winning feels even better. Interestingly, trophies and awards from NASCAR and other racing series are frequently finding their way into private collections, such as mine. It might seem odd that trophies make their way into private collections, but there are a myriad of reasons for this.

One reason for this is that after their racing career ends, drivers will sometimes need to make some money, and will sell them. Other times, they are sold to raise money for charity. Sometimes it is because they need more space. After a driver passes away, the family will sell off the trophies, because they don’t have the same meaning to the rest of the family. In any event, these artifacts are unique items to collect, and are as unique as the drivers who won them.

Drivers have been awarded everything from surfboards, wine bottles, and guitars, to grandfather clocks, and gas pumps. The grandfather clock is given out to winners at Martinsville was started in 1964. The story goes that track founder Henry Clay Earles was talking with Curtis Turner, and in the course of conversation, Turner mentioned he did not have the room for trophies, and had to give some away, so he decided to award a trophy with a legitimate function, and as luck would have it, Ridgeway Clocks had a factory 3 miles away from the track. Earles gave the first grandfather clock to Fred Lorenzen when he won the 1964 Old Dominion 500, and the rest is history.

Interestingly, giving trophies that had everyday functions is a lot more common than most people realize. This example is a silver footed tray.  It was awarded to the winner of the Oilzum Motor Oil Trophy Race at Onteora Speedway in Olive New York.  The name of the winner, and when the race was run has been lost to history.  It is 21 inches long, and 17.5 inches wide. It looks as though it could have been used for a tea service or as a serving tray for food at a party. It has some scratches across the front, but for a trophy as old as it is, it is still in very good condition.

Award and function combine again in this 4 inch tall silver mug given to the winner of something called the SCCA Rallye on December 1, 1957. It has not fared as well as the tray, showing rust spots and discoloration.

Like many national racing sanctioning bodies, The Sports Car Club Of America or SCCA has several regions that have their own racing. Other sanctioning bodies that have regions are NASCAR, and the NHRA, to name a few. While some drivers go on to national success, many drivers come to be great in one specific region.

The Southern Indiana is one of 115 regions, which are divided in to nine divisions. One such region is the Southern Indiana Region, which holds events in Southern Illinois, Indiana, and Kentucky. One driver who raced in a number of events was a driver named Walter Scott. Racing from at least 1960 to 1995, Scott won a number of different awards and trophies, which survive in my collection, including this small bowl. The bowl is for a 10th place finish for an unnamed event or series in 1960, and is in great condition. For another unnamed event or series in 1962 , Scott finished 10th. He was awarded this small bowl as a result. Walter Scott was a navigator for a driver in something called the “Thimsen’s Terrible Rallye” in 1965. The duo finished 2nd. This trophy was awarded to him for that 2nd place finish. For a third place finish in an unnamed Rallye in 1970, Scott was awarded this small bowl. It has some scratches. 1973 had Walter Scott perform well, and winning this small Thimsen Memorial Trophy for Rallyist Of the Year, which has some small scratches and dings. That same year, Scott won a small bowl for finishing 7th in something called the SIR Concourse, which shows some scratches. Walter Scott was still going in 1988, where he won this large trophy for the 1988 Year End Award for finishing 6th place. It doesn’t show any damage. In 1995, the Southern Indiana Region celebrated 40 years. Walter Scott had been a member for 35 years, and was awarded this plaque clock to commemorate his long time with the SIR. In 1996, Walter Scott competed in a Rallye called the “Tulips and Other Spring Flowers,” where he finished first in his class. He was awarded this small plaque as a result. It is in great condition. The checkered flag is synonymous with racing. While no one is really sure when the checkered flag was first used, photographic evidence dates it to at least 1906. The origin of the design is also lost to history as well. Since it is so iconic, the checkered flag is used as a trophy in many forms of racing. This example is from the Doylestown Quarter Midget Race Club which is based in Honeybrook Pennsylvania. It is 24 inches square and has the wooden pole still attached. A patch on the front states that this was awarded to the “FEATURE WINNER, DQMRA.” The awarding of small trophies was and is very popular, and this is an example. It is a 6.25 inch tall chalice awarded to The Best Beginner of the 1966 Rusters Run. It shows some staining from age, but it is in great condition This small wine goblet was awarded El Paisano Rally Race in 1969. It is about 6 inches tall, and like the Ruster’s Run chalice, it shows some stains but is in overall good condition. There is something to be said for a traditional trophy. This example is a trophy from Springfield Ozark Dragway, which was for many years, a mainstay of the NHRA. This huge trophy was awarded in the 1960’s to an event winner, and is over 24 inches tall! The term “pole position” comes from horse racing, where the fastest qualifying horse would be placed on the inside part of the course, next to the pole. Though Qualifying takes several different forms, all drivers want the pole position.

In 1979, Busch Beer started sponsoring the pole award in the Winston Cup Series, with the pole award winners would race in the Busch Clash, before the Daytona 500. The Busch Clash lasted from 1979 until 1997, when it became the Budweiser Shootout in 2001, to 2012. The sponsorship spread to the Xfinity Series and the Truck Series as well. Anheuser-Busch dropped the sponsorship in 2012, and Molson took over. In the Cup and Xfinity Series, the pole award is sponsored by Coors Light. In the Truck Series, the pole award is sponsored by Keystone Light. With the new sponsor came these small flags given to the drivers and crew members of the pole winners.  In 2018, Coors left, and Busch replaced them.

This version was given to pole award winners who are under 21. The flag is 19 inches long, and 12 inches wide, is only printed on one side, and is in good condition. In 2015, nobody in the Cup series under 21 won the pole award. In the Xfinity Series, Erik Jones won pole awards at Fontana, Texas, and Bristol. Darrell Wallace Jr. won the pole at the Dover. Finally, Ben Rhodes won the pole at Road America. In the Truck Series, Erik Jones won the pole at Kansas, Texas, Gateway, Iowa, Pocono,and Phoenix. Bobby Pierce won the pole at Eldora, and Cole Custer won the pole at Martinsville. This flag was given to one of their race teams at some point.

This flag was from 2015 at Dover, and would have been awarded to Denny Hamlin, Matt Kenseth, or Ryan Blaney. It’s the same size as the under 21 flag, The flag is 19 inches long, and 12 inches wide, is only printed on one side, and is in good condition. These pole award flags are small when compared to a full-sized checkered flag, this one from the 2010 IMSA Continental Tire SportsCar Challenge Miami Grand Prix.The IMSA Continental Tire SportsCar Challenge has two different classes, “Grand Sport” and “Street Tuner.” Grand Sport or GS features large displacement 6, 8, 10, or 12 cylinder engine sports cars. GS also features small displacement 4-cylinder forced induction sports cars. Street Tuner, or ST features smaller 4-cylinder, 5-cylinder or 6-cylinder sedans, hatchbacks, coupes or convertibles. Though some minor modifications are allowed, for the most part, these cars are identical to their showroom counterparts. These cars aren’t specially built race cars, but the cars that you or I might drive to work in.

Regardless of if drivers are racing professionally for a well-paying, championship caliber team, or a weekend warrior racing for personal glory, there is one thing that they all want in the end. It’s also the most iconic item in auto racing, the checkered flag. As I stated in my Uni-Watch Flag column: “The most iconic flag in motor sports is universally used to indicate that the race has ended. Its exact origins are unknown, but the first picture of a checkered flag being used to end a race was at the 1906 Vanderbilt Cup on Long Island. NASCAR and IndyCar checkered flags carry the Sunoco logo.”

The tradition of the Sunoco logo on the checkered flag was actually started by Unocal. From 1948 to 2003, Unocal was the official fuel sponsor of NASCAR. As such, their logos appeared on the checkered flags during the 1980’s. It was around that same time that the race used flags would be customized with the name of the event, and presented to the driver, a process that continues to this day. One such example is this 2010 IMSA Continental Tire SportsCar Challenge Miami Grand Prix flag.

The second race of the 2010 IMSA Continental Tire SportsCar Challenge was the Miami Grand Prix on March 6, 2010. During that 91 lap race, the #61 Roush Performance Mustang, driven by Billy Johnson, and Jack Roush Jr., won the overall event in GS, and the #25 Freedom Autosport Mazda MX-5 driven by Derek Whitis won ST. As Roush and Johnson were the overall winners, they were presented with this customized Sunoco race winner flag.

The flag shows a heavy amount of use, including numerous stains all over, and some light snagging. The flag features the Sunoco logo on the front. Traditionally, flags are designed so that the pattern starts on the left side, and this flag is no different. The white stripe is the area where the flag pole is inserted. After the race, when the stains occurred, blue and yellow letters were heat-pressed onto the flag, which read “GRAND PRIX OF MIAMI CSTCC SERIES MARCH 6 2010.” The flag is meant to be displayed with the front only showing, because the back of the flag has the Sunoco logo reversed. The staining present on the front, is clearly visible on the reverse.Every driver who races wants to be the first one to see that black and white checkered flag. It’s the one hope of all drivers.

Next week, we keep the trophy theme going.

The Driver Suit Blog-Throwback Thursday-1977 Billy the Kid Plymouth Arrow

1977 Billy the Kid Plymouth Arrow

Billy the Kid was a 1977 Plymouth Arrow driven by Bobby Yowell and owned by Billy Stepp, both from from Dayton, Ohio. The car as a whole looks awful, but that can’t be blamed on the paint scheme. The short, small K-car look is not a great look for a car. The car has odd proportions. That said, the paint scheme does make it look better. The red, white, and blue striped scheme works well, but the car itself takes the look from an A down to a B-.

The Driver Suit Blog-Paint Scheme Tracker-February 13, 2019

By David G. Firestone

STAR COM RACING #00

Landon Cassill #00 StarCom Fiber Chevy CamaroNew scheme for 2019, Yellow, white, black and silver with numerous stripes and designs on sides. D+

Landon Cassill #00 Permatex Chevy Camaro-New sponsor for 2019, orange and blue with white diagonal stripes on sides. A-

CHIP GANASSI RACING #1

Kurt Busch #1 Monster Energy Chevy CamaroNo change. A

TEAM PENSKE #2

Brad Keselowski #2 Miller Lite Ford MustangNo change. A

Brad Keselowski #2 Discount Tire Ford MustangNo Change. A

RICHARD CHILDRESS RACING #3

Austin Dillon #3 Dow Chevy CamaroNew scheme for 2019, black with red, white, and silver wave pattern. B+

Austin Dillon #3 Dow Gold Chevy Camaro-New scheme for 2019, gold with black and red stripe on bottom. A

Austin Dillon #3 AAA Chevy CamaroNo change. A

Austin Dillon #3 American Ethanol Chevy CamaroNew scheme for 2019, black has been removed entierly, white roof, light and dark green waves across sides. A

STEWART-HAAS RACING #4

Kevin Harvick #4 Busch Ford MustangNo change. A

Kevin Harvick #4 Jimmy Johns Ford MustangNew scheme for 2018, similar to 2018 scheme, but with added stripes on sides. A-

Kevin Harvick #4 Mobil 1 Ford MustangNew scheme for 2019, black with gray flames. A

Kevin Harvick #4 Hunt Brothers Pizza Ford Mustang-New sponsor for 2019, green sides, white hood and roof, curve designs on sides. A

Kevin Harvick #4 Busch Light Ford MustangNo change. A

Kevin Harvick #4 Busch Beer Car 2 Can Ford Mustang-New sponsor for 2019, black carbon fiber motif. A

ROUSH-FENWAY RACING #6

Ryan Newman #6 Oscar Meyer Ford MustangNew scheme for 2019, orange with hot dog motif across whole car. A

Ryan Newman #6 Wyndham Rewards Ford MustangNew scheme for 2019, clouds have been removed, stripes have been expanded. B+

Ryan Newman #6 Performance Plus Motor Oil Ford MustangNo change. B-

Ryan Newman #6 Acorns Ford Mustang-New sponsor for 2019, green with pink door numbers sublimated designs, and white logos. C-

RICHARD CHILDRESS RACING #8

Daniel Hemric #8 Bass Pro Shops/CAT Gold Chevy Camaro-New sponsor for 2019, same as #3 gold. A

Daniel Hemric #8 Liberty National Chevy CamaroNew scheme for 2019, much more toned down. A

Daniel Hemric #8 Caterpillar Chevy CamaroNew scheme for 2019, yellow front, fades to honeycomb on black rear. A

Daniel Hemric #8 ALSCO Chevy Camaro-New sponsor for 2019, white with light green on sides and hood. B+

HENDRICK MOTORSPORTS #9

Chase Elliott #9 NAPA Chevy CamaroNo change. B+

Chase Elliott #9 Mountain Dew Chevy CamaroNo change. A

Chase Elliott #9 Hooters Chevy CamaroNew scheme for 2019, sides have been cleaned up a bit. B

Chase Elliott #9 Kelly Blue Book Chevy CamaroNew scheme for 2019, blue and white with designs on sides. B-

Chase Elliott #9 Mountain Dew/Team Rubicon Chevy Camaro-New sponsor for 2019, camo has replaced black in some sports. B+

STEWART-HAAS RACING #10

Aric Almirola #10 Smithfield Foods Ford MustangNew scheme for 2019, slash patterns have been expanded. A

Aric Almirola #10 Smithfield Prime Fresh Ford Mustang-New sponsor for 2019, white front and top, green and yellow rear. B+

JOE GIBBS RACING #11

Denny Hamlin #11 FedEx Toyota CamryNew scheme for 2019, white with orange and blue designs on sides. B+

TEAM PENSKE #12

Ryan Blaney #12 PPG Ford MustangNo change. A

Ryan Blaney #12 Menard’s/Knauf Ford MustangNew scheme for 2019, blue on hood and front, yellow sides. B+

GERMAIN RACING #13

Ty Dillon #13 Twisted Tea Chevy CamaroNo change. A

STEWART-HAAS RACING #14

Clint Bowyer #14 Peak Ford MustangNew sponsor for 2019, black, and blue with curve elements. C

Clint Bowyer #14 Blue Def Ford Mustang-New sponsor for 2018, same as 2019 Peak, but white replaces black. C

Clint Bowyer #14 Rush’s Truck Stops Ford MustangNo change. A

Clint Bowyer #14 Mobil 1 Ford FusionNew scheme for 2019, black with red flames. A

ROUSH-FENWAY RACING #17

Ricky Stenhouse Jr. #17 Fifth-Third Bank Ford MustangNo change. B-

Ricky Stenhouse Jr. #17 Fastenal Ford MustangNew scheme for 2019, black added to sides, along with hourglass design. B-

Ricky Stenhouse Jr. #17 Little Hug Fruit Barrels Ford MustangNo change. F

JOE GIBBS RACING #18

Kyle Busch #18 M&M’s Toyota CamryNo change. A

Kyle Busch #18 Interstate Batteries Toyota CamryNo change. F

Kyle Busch #18 M&M’s Chocolate Bar Toyota Camry-New sponsor for 2019, chocolate bar motif across whole car. B-

Kyle Busch #18 Skittles Patriotic Toyota CamryNo change. A

JOE GIBBS RACING #19

Martin Truex Jr. #19 Bass Pro Shops Toyota CamryNo change. C-

Martin Truex Jr. #19 Auto Owner’s Insurance Toyota CamryNew scheme for 2019, blue front with cutting edge designs fade to black. B+

JOE GIBBS RACING #20

Erik Jones #20 Craftsman Toyota CamryNo change. A

Erik Jones #20 DeWalt Toyota CamryNo change. A

Erik Jones #20 SportClips Toyota CamryNew scheme for 2019, same as 2018, but with smartphone added on side. C

WOOD BROTHERS RACING #21

Paul Menard #21 Motorcraft Ford MustangNo change. A

TEAM PENSKE #22

Joey Logano #22 Pennzoil Ford MustangNo change. A

Joey Logano #22 Shell/Pennzoil Ford MustangNo change. D

HENDRICK MOTORSPORTS #24

William Byron #24 Axalta Chevy CamaroNo change. A

William Byron #24 UniFirst Chevy CamaroNo change. B-.

William Byron #24 Liberty University Chevy CamaroNo change. A

William Byron #24 Hertz Chevy CamaroNo change. A

GO FAS RACING #32

Corey Lajoie #32 Keen Parts/Corvette Parts Ford MustangNew scheme for 2019, black with red and silver stripes on sides. B-

Corey LaJoie #32 Schluter Systems Ford MustangNew scheme for 2019, orange with black designs. A

Corey LaJoie #32 Old Spice Ford Mustang-New sponsor for 2019, LaJoie’s face and hair across whole car. F

FRONT ROW MOTORSPORTS #34

Michael McDowell #34 Love’s Truck Stops Ford MustangNo change. A

FRONT ROW MOTORSPORTS #36

Matt Tifft #36 Speedco Ford MustangNo change. A

JTG DAUGHERTY RACING #37

Chris Buescher #37 Kleenex Wet Wipes Chevy CamaroNo change. B+

FRONT ROW MOTORSPORTS #38

David Ragan #38 Select Blinds Ford Mustang-New sponsor for 2019, blue with white and purple designs on sides. B

CHIP GANASSI RACING #40

Jamie McMurray #40 McDonald’s/Cessna Chevy CamaroNew scheme for 2019, toned down version of 2018 scheme. A

Jamie McMurray #40 Advent Health Chevy Camaro-New sponsor for 2019, green, blue, pink, and silver with cutting edge design on sides. F

STEWART-HAAS RACING #41

Daniel Suarez #41 Haas Automotion Ford MustangNew scheme for 2019, red front, black camo rear. F

CHIP GANASSI RACING #42

Kyle Larson #42 Credit One Chevy CamaroNew scheme for 2019, redesign of the 2018 scheme. A

RICHARD PETTY MOTORSPORTS #43

Darrell Wallace Jr. #43 Air Force Chevy CamaroNo change. A

Darrell Wallace Jr. #43 Plan B Sales Chevy CamaroNew scheme for 2019,dark blue, Petty blue, silver, and white with designs on sides. F

Darrell Wallace Jr. #43 Aftershokz Chevy Camaro-New sponsor for 2018, black front, Petty blue rear. A

JTG DAUGHERTY RACING #47

Ryan Preece #47 Kroger Chevy CamaroNew scheme for 2018, patriotic motif across whole car. A

HENDRICK MOTORSPORTS #48

Jimmie Johnson #48 Ally Financial Chevy Camaro-New sponsor for 2019, black with blue designs on wheel well. A

RICK WARE RACING #51

BJ McCleod #51 Jacob Companies Chevy CamaroNew scheme for 2019, blue with silver and white designs across car. B

RICK WARE RACING #52

Cody Ware #52 Winn-Dixie Chevy CamaroNew sponsor for 2019, red front, black middle, red rear. A

TOMMY BALDWIN RACING #71

Ryan Truex #71 Accell Construction Chevy CamaroNo change. A

HENDRICK MOTORSPORTS #88

Alex Bowman #88 LLumar Window Film Chevy CamaroNew scheme for 2019, white front and top, orange and red rear, wave pattern in between. C

Alex Bowman #88 Valvoline Chevy CamaroNo change. A

Alex Bowman #88 Nationwide Chevy CamaroNew scheme for 2019, blue hood and roof, white side, blue stripe across bottom. A

LEAVINE FAMILY RACING #95

Matt DiBenedetto #95 Procore Chevy Toyota CamryNo change. F

Matt DiBenedetto #95 Dumont Jets Toyota CamryNew scheme for 2019, some slight changes from 2018. B-

The Driver Suit Blog-Paint Scheme Grades-February 9, 2019

By David G. Firestone

Landon Cassill #00 Permatex Chevy Camaro-The shades of orange and blue work well, but I think that there are too many white stripes. It’s not that bad, but they do take an A scheme to an A-.

Chase Elliott #9 Hooters Chevy Camaro-Cleaning up the sides does help a bit, but it’s still a mediocre scheme. Still, it is an improvement, so I’ll give it a B.

Chase Elliott #9 Kelly Blue Book Chevy Camaro-Another example of a new scheme not improving, but also not making it worse. This scheme is getting the same B- that last year’s scheme did.

Ryan Blaney #12 Menard’s/Knauf Ford Mustang-Last year’s Menard’s template was great. If this is the new Menard’s template, I’m not impressed. The blue front, and stripes are a downgrade. That said, it’s still a decent scheme, so I’ll give it a B+.

Kyle Busch #18 M&M’s Chocolate Bar Toyota Camry-The chocolate bar motif could work, but this is just too cluttered to be great. It’s a decent scheme though, so I’ll give it a B-.

Martin Truex Jr. #19 Auto Owner’s Insurance Toyota Camry-I could get behind the cutting edge look, and I could get behind the plain black look, if they were separate. Together, this scheme looks like two different people designed one half of the car. These schemes NEVER look great. It’s not terrible, so I’ll give it a B+, all things considered.

Paul Menard #21 Motorcraft Ford Mustang-Same scheme as last year, same A grade.

Joey Logano #22 Pennzoil Ford Mustang-Same scheme as last year, same A grade.

Ryan Truex #71 Accell Construction Chevy Camaro-Same scheme as 2017, same A grade.

The Driver Suit Blog-Throwback Thursday-1975 Animal Jim Feurer Ford Pinto

1975 Animal Jim Feurer Ford Pinto

Jim Feurer is from Lacon, Illinois, and is the owner and driver of Animal Jim Feurer, a 1975 Ford Pinto. The Pinto, in addition to being beyond unsafe, was also an ugly designed car. It is much too rounded for the time, and the proportions are all off. The orange works, and the black stripe works well too. But the car as a whole gets a C.